We apologize, but our economic resources
not allow us to translate all the text.
Here we report only the most important parts.
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if someone would want to help us to do it
We live in the era of electronics and space expeditions, we are very advanced in technology, in fact through the stem cells we are going to build new human organs to replace the ill ones etc, but we have solved none of the problems the mankind is afflicted of: hunger, social inequality, unemployment and wars.
During the past few years most western countries have undergone an economical and financial crisis nobody knows when it will end. Every day we are witnesses of bad policies with disappointing results. Everyone can realize how often our politicians are inadequate to tackle sociopolitical problems (let’s pass over the cases when they are dishonest). It is time somebody thought of ‘creating’ a science that aims to study the social and political problems in a scientific way.
It was no longer unthinkable, in fact, in XXI century politics is still done in an intuitive way, with the same approximate methods of the past centuries.
In Emile Littré’s footsteps, a famous French philosopher and political man, who, in 1870, bearing in mind the principles of positivism, founded the “Science of Governmentof the States” and following the Aristotelian – Cicero tradition, we suggest to create a new academic discipline that aims to study the real and daily problems of people. The state managed as a modern and efficient firm.
What is government science and its purposes. Government science (gs), as political science (ps) branch, aims to find solutions to the problems the “good governor” is called upon to face. The “good governor” is the one targets only the common good. In other words, the gs, using the knowledge offered by the political science and other social sciences, but, most of all, by taking advantage of the political experiences of the past, aims to:
Suggest solutions. GS seeks with objectivity to address the study of problems which arising from political and economic organization of a nation, from the ones of public policy, educational issues to public order etc., to find the best solution, assessing merit and defects, advantages and disadvantages of every solution. For example, it studies all electoral systems to understand which one leads to greater political stability and allows the formation of durable governments. In fact, this new science, even if it uses the experience and methods of political science, it intends to get a more ambitious goal: the search for the “ideal political system.”
Foresee the consequences. Another vocation of the science of good governance is warning politicians, who are in power, about possible negative consequences of wrong legislative measure that it intends to introduce. For instance, it informs a possible amnesty would solve the problem of prison overcrowding, but would also have the obvious disadvantage of set at liberty many criminals they would return to crime and after a few years the situation in the prisons will return as before, if not worse. In other words it is a solution that can work only on the short term.
GS as a science. There are many disciplines that call themselves “scientific,” but it is not sufficient boast this appellative to become a science. For this motive first at all we will see what is a science and what requirements a subject of study must have to beconsidered scientific, later we will verify if government science satisfies all these conditions.
WHAT IS A SCIENCE
The positivism was a philosophical movement been born at the beginning of the eight hundred by August Comte, that privileged the scientific and experimental knowledge, conceived as the only legitimate form of knowledge of the reality. The word ‘positivism’, in fact, was used really to point out the characteristic proper of the scientific knowledge, understood as a ‘positive’ one, that is turned to the real reality, in opposition to the empty abstractions of metaphysics.
Under the influence of this valuable movement, heir in wide part of the Enlightenment of the Seven hundred century and the spirit of the English empiricism, social sciences were born as the sociology, the psychology etc., that imitating the methods of the natural sciences they tried to give it a scientific formulation. So that it is not hazardous to sustain that the concept of science was born with the positivism.
About the term science, however, they appropriated a lot of disciplines without being at all “scientific.” Some of them today are held such, without beingit at all. For this motive, before going on, it is fundamental to clarify what a science is and what characteristics must have a discipline for a science to be considered.
To become science
. In our opinion, a discipline for becoming a science must satisfy 5 criterions:1- Use the scientific method
. The essence of the science is the scientific method, that is the formulation and the impartial verification of theories of the world’s operation. It’s a method of applicable investigation like the study of an economic system, the terrestrial gravity and the evolution of kind. Using the scientific method means to use the scientific procedures in the search in how those can give some certainties.The political ones, unfortunately, also when they are not in bad faith, are not “scientific” at all for three motives:1) Because convinced their proposals, or better the solutions advanced from them, are correct and their opinions correspond to the “truth.” Instead, the scientist always doubts some truths and looks for in continue confirmations. 2) Because don’t have the habit to observe the society with scientific eye, neither worry about to verify their proposals are fit to the problems solution they have called to face. Besides, they always have not a good professional preparation. 3) Because they are assembled on the search of the popular consent, on the electoral strategies or they are busy to plot clientele nets and alliances, in poor words their principal objective is the power, “the search of solutions” comes only in second way. The science of good government offers the correct tools to administer a country in efficient way.2.Individualize and delimit the object of study.
A discipline for becoming science, first at all, has to circumscribe with certainty its object of study, that is: to explain of what intends to deal, to point out its proposes and it must give itself a definition, that is recognized by the greatest part of researchers. Ethology, for instance, deals with animal organisms study, particularly of their behavior and of relation ships with other animals. The object of study, must not be, clearly, the same of other disciplines, otherwise it’s a “duplicate.”
2- Point out the methods of search.A discipline for being held “science”, first, has to point out of what methods of search it intends to use for his studies. In our case, the things are facilitated by the fact the political science belongs to the amplest family of the social sciences and, therefore, shares the methods of it. About methods of search, because it’s an ample matter, we will occupy in the next chapter.
4- Systematize the knowledge (order the contents). If we study medicine we see the contents of this science are exposed in orderly way. For instance, it starts with anatomy’s study, beginning from the skeletal and muscular system, then the various organs of body are studied, and ends to the pathologies that can interest. In other words, the knowledges are exposed according to logical schemes and, above all, in way similar from all the authors (so that comparison is also easy). In other words to give a scientific dignity a discipline it needs first to provide what has called by the researchers of political science “systematization of knowledge”.If in a discipline the knowledges are exposed in messy way and without a logic, it’s not a science.
To order the contents, in effects, it means above all that all the matters, object of study of the science, find place in a single framework. It was the hardest obstacle to overcome because the government science issues not only they are very numerous, but they are complex and tightly interconnected the one to the others; so that it remains difficult to “disentangle” them and “to put them in order” according to a logical scheme.
5. The completeness. One of most important requisite to a discipline to be considered science is the existence of manuals or university courses that treats in complete way all the issues dealt with by. Clearly nobody pretends the perfection, but it is necessary at least the primary importance problems are mentioned. Other authors, then, will take care of deepen them.
Secondly these manuals must have a scientific (that is based on the scientific method and on the rational reasoning) and pluralist approach, in the sense they must not report only the point of view of the author, but also the positions of the most authoritative theorists. Let’s take the example from economy science, in trade there are good manuals for the university, whose thematic economic are are dealt in a comprehensive manner; some are exposed in more superficial way, others more deepened, but certainly they can consider complete.
Things are different for the essays, they have not only a scientific formulation, because they often quote only the opinion of his author. For instance the book “Italy I would want”, written by a known political Italian, can not be considered an essay of political science because it relates only the idea of its author, but it does not care to point out what has been previously said or written by other authors, researchers or theorists.
Scientific scale. Now it is correct to make a distinction, or better proposing a classification of the disciplines according to theirs “degree” of scientificism.
At first in this scale we find the exact sciences: mathematics, physics, natural sciences etc.. They are few but these disciplines are corroborated by experiments or certain tests. They are reliable the 99%.
At second, we find the sciences, they are disciplines based on the scientific method, but they are reliable at least 80%. We do not believe, that political science, at least for now, meets this criterion. Also other disciplines are near to be scientific, as psychology, economy, but they have not always certain and verifiable answers. The aspiration of the government science is to fall into this category.
At third place, we have disciplines on a scientific basis. They are the ones based on a rational and logical reasoning. They are not reliable even to 80%. Sociology is, for instance, among these last ones. In this subject of study a lot of searches are conducted in a scientific manner and must be considered reliable, but sociology can not be considered a science because it has not an “unique corpus”, a “framework that joins all”. In fact, apart some thematics of general character, as the methods of search and the use of questionnaires, every author “goes on his own.” For this reason if we compare two manuals of sociology, we will see that each treats different matters.
In the last, we find philosophicaldisciplines,in our sector we have political philosophy. A lot of them has also a scientific base but, what characterize them, it is the fact every author talks about his theory independently from the others. In effects we deal with disciplines based on the opinions, not on the comparison and on the verifications, not only, but the contents are not almost always exposed in rational way, neither they have the requirements of the completeness or we find the “systematization of knowledge”.
WHY GOVERNMENT SCIENCE IS A SCIENCE
The science of good government, if anyone still doubts, it is a science because it meets all the criteria we have shown before to be considered a science. The true scientist, however, is always ready to cast doubt on his opinions, for this reason we proceed to a quick examination to see if it is really so.
We begin, by research methods. Things are facilitated by the fact that government science is a branch of political science, so it roughly shares the methods. In any case, we have well detected and described in Chapter n. 2.
With regard to definition, objectives and scope of government science, we have done in detail in the previous pages. Similarly, relations with political science have been well specified in part 2 of this chapter.
The discussion on the object of study of government science has been addressed in a clear and comprehensive in the next paragraph. We are not limited to point them generically but we have proposed a detailed list of them (just take a look at the index of this volume). One thing that was made only in a few disciplines, certainly not in political science where the themes often change significantly according to the authors.
In addition, the scientific nature of our approach is guaranteed by two facts:1)Pluralism. We do not report only our opinion, but all the more significant positions on the problems.2) The gs does not pretend to know the right answer to every problem or to be infallible, but for every problem it limits to indicate public policies considered the best by the experts, listing, for every one of the solutions, advantages and disadvantages. In fact, the gs does not report “the” solution for every problem, but “the solutions”. Then, it is politicians duty to choose the best. For example, the gs does not say public hospitals are the best solution to the problem of health care of the people but it says public hospitals have these qualities and these defects, while those completely private have these advantages and these disadvantages. Gs limits to present the various positions, then everyone will draw its conclusions.